## What is the slot/pole combination of main EV/HEV e-powertrains?

Application to e-NVH The slot/pole combination and e-motor topology (induction machine Vs synchronous machine, radial Vs axial flux, internal Vs external rotor) determine the characteristic spectra of slotting magnetic forces […]

## What is the switching frequency of main EV/HEV e-powertrains?

Definition The switching frequency and switching strategy determine the characteristic voltage and current supply spectra of AC electrical machines. They are chosen to maximize the converter output power, minimize electric […]

## Does Maxwell Tensor include Lorentz Forces ?

Electromagnetic problem An analytical case is presented in order to show that the airgap Maxwell Tensor method is taking into account the Lorentz forces (sometimes called Laplace forces). Let us […]

## What is tooth modulation effect?

Definition Mechanical slot modulation effect, also called tooth sampling effect, refers to the fact that airgap magnetic stress waves are “sampled” when converted to physical magnetic forces applied to stator […]

## What is PWM (Pulse-Width Modulation)?

Definition PWM (Pulse-Width Modulation) is a technique initially developed to control electrical machines at variable speed. It is based on the generation of voltage pulses of variable width: when smoothed […]

## What is switching noise?

Introduction Switching noise in electric drives comes from the electric machine excitation by electromagnetic forces induced by switching in power electronics. It is a particular case of magnetic noise and […]

## What are stator winding force harmonics?

Definition In e-NVH, stator winding force harmonics (sometimes called stator mmf force harmonics, or armature field force harmonics) refer to Maxwell force harmonics linked to stator magnetomotive force space harmonics […]

## What are saturation force harmonics?

Definition In e-NVH, saturation force harmonics refer for Maxwell force harmonics linked to magnetic saturation combined with slotting effects. Saturation tends to flatten the airgap flux, resulting in a modification […]

## What is magnetic noise ?

Noise and vibrations of electrical machines include electromagnetically-excited sources, aerodynamic sources and mechanical sources. This article briefly explains the origin of magnetic noise and vibrations in electric machines, also called […]

## What is a wavenumber (spatial order or space order)?

Definition A wavenumber describes the spatial frequency of a periodic quantity (permeance, magnetomotive force, flux density, magnetic force, magnetic vibration), generally along the airgap of the electrical machine or along […]