[COMPEL] Acoustic noise of electromagnetic origin in a fractional-slot induction machine

AuthorsJean Le Besnerais ; Vincent Lanfranchi; Michel Hecquet; Pascal Brochet; Guy Friedrich
StatusPublished in: SSD, COMPEL
KeywordsInduction machine, Magnetic noise, Vibrations, Fractional-slot winding


Purpose – The main purpose of this paper is to apply a fast analytical model of the acoustic behaviour of pulse-width modulation (PWM) controlled induction machines to a fractional-slot winding machine. A second goal is to analytically clarify the interaction between space harmonics and time harmonics in audible electromagnetic noise spectrum. Methodology/approach – A multilayer single-phase equivalent circuit calculates the stator and rotor currents. Air-gap radial flux density, which is supposed to be the only source of acoustic noise, is then computed with winding functions formalism. Mechanical and acoustic models are based on a 2D ring stator model. A method to analytically derive the orders and frequencies of most important vibration lines is detailed. The results are totally independent of the supply strategy and winding type of the machine. Some variable-speed simulations and tests are run on a 700 W fractional-slot induction machine in sinusoidal case as a first validation of theoretical results. Findings – The influence of both winding space harmonics and PWM time harmonics on noise spectrum is exposed. Most dangerous orders and frequencies expressions are demonstrated in sinusoidal and PWM cases. For traditional integral windings, it is shown that vibration orders are necessarily even. When stator slot number is not even, which is the case for fractional windings, some odd order deflection appear: the radial electromagnetic power can therefore dissipate as vibrations through all stator deformation modes, leading to a potentially lower noise level at resonance. Research limitations – The analytical work of this paper does not consider saturation and eccentricity harmonics which can play a significant role in noise radiation. Practical implications – The analytical model and theoretical results presented in this paper help designing low-noise induction machines, and diagnosing noise or vibration problems. Originality/value – This paper details a fully analytical acoustic and electromagnetic model of a PWM fed induction machine, and demonstrate the theoretical expression of main noise spectrum lines combining both time and space harmonics.

Preprint and full paper

The full paper can be found on Elsevier.

The pre-print can be downloaded here:

Acoustic noise of electromagnetic origin in a fractional slot induction machine

The poster presented at SSD conference can be downloaded here:

Acoustic noise of electromagnetic origin in a fractional-slot induction machine