Reduction techniques of magnetic noise and vibrations

This technical bibliography comes from EOMYS technical training on the reduction techniques of magnetic noise and vibrations. It is regularly updated based on EOMYS consulting experience in the
assessment and mitigation of noise problems in electrical machines and drives.

Electromagnetic noise and vibration levels must be taken into account during the early design phase of electrical machines. Several techniques can be used to reduce NVH levels due to electromagnetic excitations which includes magnetic, control, and mechanical design modifications. Most efficient technique is based on the cancellation of magnetic force harmonics using Manatee e-NVH software.

For more information on EOMYS technical training offer, please visit

[D1] W. Zhu, S. Pekarek, B. Fahimi, S. Member, B. J. Deken, and S. Member, “Investigation of Force Generation in a Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machine,” vol. 22, no. 3, pp. 557–565, 2007.

[D2] T. Heikkilä., « Permanent magnet synchronous motor for industrial inverter applications –  analysis and design », Thèse de l’Université de Technologie de Lappeenranta, 2002

[D3] ZHU (Z.Q.), MOHD JAMIL (M.L.) et WU (L.J.), Influence of Slot and Pole Number  Combinations on Unbalanced Magnetic Force in Permanent Magnet Machines, IEEE

[D4] J. LE BESNERAIS, “Reduction of audible magnetic noise in PWM-supplied induction machines”, PhD thesis, 2008

[D5] ZHU (Z.Q.), XIA (Z.P.), WU (L.J.), et JEWELL (G.W.), Influence of slot and pole number combination on radial force and vibration modes in fractional slot PM brushless machines having single- and double-layer windings, in Proc. IEEE ECCE, San Jose, CA, Sep. 20–24, 2009, pp. 3443–3450.

[D6] ZHU (Z.Q.), MOHD JAMIL (M.L.) et WU (L.J.), Influence of Slot and Pole Number  Combinations on Unbalanced Magnetic Force in Permanent Magnet Machines, IEEE

[D7] HWANG (S.M.), EOM (J.B.), HWANG (G.B.), JEONG (W.B.) et JUNG (Y.H.), Cogging torque and acoustic noise reduction in permanent magnet motors in teeth pairing, IEEE Trans. on Mag, Vol 36, No 5, 2000

[D8] Zhu, Z.Q.; Ruangsinchaiwanich, S.; Schofield, N.; Howe, D., “Reduction of cogging torque in interior-magnet brushless machines,” Magnetics, IEEE Transactions on , vol.39, no.5, pp.3238,3240, Sept. 2003

[D9] J. LE BESNERAIS, “Vibroacoustic analysis of radial and tangential force harmonics in PMSM”, IEEE Trans on Mag, 2014

[D10] A. Rahideh, M. Mardaneh, and T. Korakianitis, “Analytical 2D Calculations of Torque , Inductance and Back- EMF for Brushless Slotless Machines with Surface Inset Magnets,” no. c, 2013.

[D11] A. Frias, P. Pellerey et al. “Rotor and Stator Shape Optimization of a Synchronous Machine to Reduce Iron Losses and Acoustic Noise.” In Proc of the 8th IEEE Vehicle Power and Propulsion Conference (VPPC’2012), Séoul : Corée, République De (2012).

[D12] ZHU (L.), JIANG (S.Z.), ZHU (Z.Q.) et CHAN (C.C.), Analytical Methods for Minimizing Cogging Torque in Permanent-Magnet Machines, IEEE Trans. on Mag, Vol 45, No 4, 2009

[D13] GIERAS (J. F.), CHO LAI (J.) et WANG (C.),  Noise of polyphase electric motors, CRC Press, 2006.

[D14] P. Pellerey, V. Lanfranchi, G. Friedrich, and A. E. Characterization, “Influence of the load angle on the magnetic pressure harmonic content of a WRSM,” pp. 877–882, 2010.

[D15] J. LE BESNERAIS, P. PELLEREY, V. LANFRANCHI and M. HECQUET, Bruit acoustique d’origine magnétique dans les machines synchrones (in French), Techniques de l’Ingénieur, 2014

[D16]  Liang W. et al, Analytical investigation of sidebad electromagnetic noise in PMWM drive with voltage-source oinverter by SVPWM technique, IEEE Trans on En Conv 2014

[D17} Dorrell, D.G.; Smith, AC., “Calculation of UMP in induction motors with series or parallel winding connections,” Energy Conversion, IEEE Transactions on , vol.9, no.2, pp.304,310, Jun 1994

[D18] Investigation on a choice of stator slot skew angle in brushless PM machines, M. Jagiela et al., Electrical Engineering Journal, Oct 2012

[D19] Modeling and control of radial forces due to electromagnetic force in IPMSMs, M. Kanematsu et al, EVTeC, 2014

[D20] Field weakening for radial force reduction in brushless permanent-magnet DC motors, G. Jiao et al, IEEE Trans on Mag, 2004

[D21]  Motors with buried magnets for medium speed application, J. Kolehmainen, IEEE Trans on En Conv, 2008

[D22] Torque Ripple Improvement for Synchronous Reluctance Motor Using an Asymmetric Flux Barrier Arrangement, M Sanada et al, IEEE Trans on Ind Appl, 2004

[D23] Influence of the Number of Pole Pairs on the Audible Noise of Inverter-Fed Electric Motors: Radial Force Waves and Mechanical Resonances, I Tsoumas, ICEM 2014

[D24] B. Cassoret, J-Ph. Lecointe et J-F. Brudny. “Influence of the pole number on the magnetic noise of electrical AC machines”. Dans : Progress In Electromagnetics Research (B) 33 (2011), p. 83–97

[D25] C. Schlensok and G. Henneberger, “Torque behaviour in induction machines due to skewing.”

[D26] Guy Won Cho, « The Optimal Design of Fractional-slot SPM to Reduce Cogging Torque and Vibration”

[D27] N Bianchi, « Design Techniques for Reducing the Cogging Torque in Surface-Mounted PM Motors” 2002

[D28] W. Fei, « A New Technique of Cogging Torque Suppression in Direct-Drive Permanent Magnet Brushless Machines”

[D29] S. M. Hwang « Cogging torque and acoustic noise reduction in permanent magnet motors by teeth pairing

[D30] S. Qurban, A. Shah, T. A. Lipo, L. Fellow, and B. Kwon, “Modeling of Novel Permanent Magnet Pole Shape SPM Motor for Reducing Torque Pulsation,” vol. 48, no. 11, pp. 4626–4629, 2012.”

[D31] L. Durantay, F. Laurent, Y. Messin, B. Interface, L. Durantay, F. Laurent, Y. Messin, and V. Kromer, “Large-band reduction of magnetic vibrations of induction machines with breaking-of-impedance interface,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., vol. 36, no. 4, pp. 1126–1131, 2000.

[D32] C. Schlensok, M. Van Der Giet, M. H. Gracia, D. Van Riesen, and K. Hameyer, “Structure-Dynamic Analysis of an Induction Machine Depending on Stator Housing Coupling,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., vol. 44, no. 3, 2008.

[D33] RATHNA KUMAR SASTRY CHITROJU Improved Performance Characteristics of Induction Machines with Non-Skewed Asymmetrical Rotor Slots. 2009.

[D34] A. Stening, Analysis and Reduction of Parasitic Effects in Induction Motors With Die-Cast Rotors 2013.

[D35] Daohan Wang; Xiuhe Wang; Dongwei Qiao; Ying Pei; Sang-Yong Jung, “Reducing Cogging Torque in Surface-Mounted Permanent-Magnet Motors by Nonuniformly Distributed Teeth Method,” in Magnetics, IEEE Transactions on , vol.47, no.9, pp.2231-2239, Sept. 2011

[D36] M. J. DeBortoli, S. J. Salon, D. W. Burow, and C. J. Slavik, “Effects of rotor eccentricity and parallel windings on induction machine behavior: a study using finite element analysis”, IEEE Trans. on Mag., Vol. 29, No. 2, pp. 1676-1682, March 1993.

[D37] A. Tenhunen, “Finite-element calculation of unbalanced magnetic pull and circulating current between parallel windings in induction motor with non-uniform eccentric rotor”, Proceedings of Electromotion’01. Bologna, Italy, 19-20 June 2001, pages 19-24.

[D38] Jung-Pyo Hong, Kyung-Ho Ha, and Ju Lee. Stator pole and yoke design for vibration reduction of switched reluctance motor. Magnetics, IEEE Transactions on, 38(2) :929–932, mars 2002.

[D39] D. Torregrossa, F. Peyraut, M. Cirrincione, C. Espanet, A. Cassat, and A. Miraoui. A new passive methodology for reducing the noise in electrical machines : Impact of some parameters on the modal analysis. Industry Applications, IEEE Transactions on, 46(5) :1899 –1907, sept. – oct. 2010. 52

[D40] Anthony Frias, Pierre Pellerey, Afef Kedous-Lebouc, Christian Chillet, Vincent Lanfranchi, Laurent Albert, and Louis Humbert. Rotor and stator shape optimization of a synchronous machine to reduce iron losses and acoustic noise. In The 8th IEEE Vehicle Power and Propulsion Conference (VPPC’ 2012), pages 98–103, Séoul, Corée, République De, 2012

[D41] Application of Sinusoidal Field Pole in a Permanent-Magnet Synchronous Machine to Improve the NVH Behavior Considering the MTPA and MTPV Operation Area

[D42] D. Macintosh, Skewing For Both Cogging Torque Components In Permanent Magnet Machines

[D43] Modelling framework for electromagnetic noise generation from traction motors F. Botling

[D44] T. Lugand, “Contribution to the Modeling and Optimization of the Double-Fed Induction Machine for Pumped-Storage Hydro Power Plant Applications,” Ph.D. dissertation, Grenoble University, Grenoble, France, 2013.

[D45] Proposal of Vibration Control Reducing 2nd Radial Electromagnetic Force, EEJ

[D46] A. Wanke et al “Performance invariant noise reduction of a plug-in hybrid electric drive using an innovative skewing concept”, InterNoise 2016

[D47] Rajah Singh, “Energy Saving Strategy on Electric Propulsion System Integrated with Doubly Fed Asynchronous Motors”

[D48] D. Franck, “Active reduction of audible noise exciting radial force-density waves in induction motors”, 2011

[D49] Cassoret, B., Corton, R., Roger, D., & Brudny, J. (2003). Magnetic Noise Reduction of Induction Machines, 18(2), 570–579.

[D50] Gui-Yu Zhou and J-X Shen, “Rotor Notching for Electromagnetic Noise Reduction of Induction Motors”, IEEE Trans Mag 2016

[D51] Gilson, A., Verez, G., Dubas, F., Depernet, D., & Espanet, C. (n.d.). Design of a High-Speed Permanent-Magnet Machine for Electrically-Assisted Turbocharger Applications with Reduced Noise Emissions.

[D52] S. J. Sung, G. H. Jang and H. J. Lee, “Torque Ripple and Unbalanced Magnetic Force of a BLDC Motor due to the Connecting Wire Between Slot Windings,” in IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, vol. 48, no. 11, pp. 3319-3322, Nov. 2012.doi: 10.1109/TMAG.2012.2198879

[D53] Guandong Jiao and C. D. Rahn, “Field weakening for radial force reduction in brushless permanent-magnet DC motors,” in IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, vol. 40, no. 5, pp. 3286-3292, Sept. 2004.doi: 10.1109/TMAG.2004.832989

[D54] D. Y. Kim, G. H. Jang and J. K. Nam, “Magnetically Induced Vibrations in an IPM Motor Due to Distorted Magnetic Forces Arising From Flux Weakening Control,” in IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, vol. 49, no. 7, pp. 3929-3932, July 2013. doi: 10.1109/TMAG.2013.2238614

[D55] Valavi, Mostafa; Pascal, Jules; Nysveen, Arne. (2016) Analysis of Radial Magnetic Forces in Hydrogenerators with Fractional-Slot Windings. 2016 XXII International Conference on Electrical Machines (ICEM 2016)Conference Proceedings.

[D56] Jiang, Weisheng; et al, Noise and Vibration Reduction for IPMSM by Using Rotor Circumferential Slits

[D57] G. J. Park, Y. J. Kim and S. Y. Jung, “Design of IPMSM Applying V-Shape Skew Considering Axial Force Distribution and Performance Characteristics According to the Rotating Direction,” in IEEE Transactions on Applied Superconductivity, vol. 26, no. 4, pp. 1-5, June 2016.

doi: 10.1109/TASC.2016.2543267

[D58] W. Fei, Comparison of Cogging Torque Reduction in Permanent Magnet Brushless Machines by Conventional and Herringbone Skewing Techniques

[D59] D. Dinca, Circulating currents of delta connected fractional slot machines for mass production

[D60] Besnerais, J. Le, Lanfranchi, V., Hecquet, M., Romary, R., & Brochet, P. (2009). Optimal Slot Opening Width for Magnetic Noise Reduction in Induction Motors. IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion.

[D61] H. Guldemir, K. J. Bradley (2001) The Effect of Rotor Design on Rotor Slot Harmonics in Induction Machines, Electric Power Components and Systems,

29:9, 771-788, DOI: 10.1080/153250001317094199

[D62] S. Zuo, F. Lin and X. Wu, “Noise Analysis, Calculation, and Reduction of External Rotor Permanent-Magnet Synchronous Motor,” in IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, vol. 62, no. 10, pp. 6204-6212, Oct. 2015.

[D63] Vibroacoustic optimization of permanent magnet synchronous motor, Journal Sound Vibrations, 2017

[D64] M. Sanada, K. Hiramoto, S. Morimoto and Y. Takeda, “Torque ripple improvement for synchronous reluctance motor using an asymmetric flux barrier arrangement,” in IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, vol. 40, no. 4, pp. 1076-1082, July-Aug. 2004. doi: 10.1109/TIA.2004.830745

[D65] P. O. Rasmussen, J. Andreasen, and J. M. Pijanowski, “Structural Stator Spacers-the Key to Silent Electrical Machines,” Thirty-Sixth IAS Annu. Meet. Conf. Rec. 2001 IEEE Ind. Appl. Conf., vol. 1, no. C, pp. 33–39, 2001.

[D66] K. Masoudi, M. R. Feyzi, and A. Masoudi, “Reduction of Vibration and Acoustic Noise in the Switched Reluctance Motor by Using New Improved Stator Yoke Shape,” in 2013 21st Iranian Conference on Electrical Engineering (ICEE), 2013, pp. 1–4.

[D67] P. O. Rasmussen, E. C. LaBrush, and J. H. Andreasen, “Interlaminated Damping – A Method for Reduction of Vibration and Acoustic Noise for Switched Reluctance Machines,” Conf. Rec. – IAS Annu. Meet. (IEEE Ind. Appl. Soc., vol. 3, pp. 1531–1539, 2005.

[D68] J. Li and Y. Cho, “Dynamic Reduction of Unbalanced Magnetic Force and Vibration in Switched Reluctance Motor by the Parallel Paths in Windings,” Math. Comput. Simul., vol. 81, no. 2, pp. 407–419, 2010.

[D69] A. Sakuma, M. Kadowaki, H. Ukigai, I. Miki, T. Okamoto, and T. Segawa, “Stator Structure for Noise Reduction of Switched Reluctance Motor,” Electr. Mach. Syst. (ICEMS), 2012 15th Int. Conf., pp. 1–4, 2012

[D70] Dajaku, “Analysis of Different PM Machines with Concentrated Windings and Flux Barriers in Stator Core”

[D71] J. H. Oh and Byung Il Kwon, “New rotor shape design of SRM to reduce the torque ripple and improve the output power,” 2005 Int. Conf. Electr. Mach. Syst., vol. 1, p. 652–654 Vol. 1, 2005.

[D72] P. O. Rasmussen, F. Blaabjerg, J. K. Pedersen, and F. Jensen, “Switched Reluctance-Shark Machines-More Torque and Less Acoustic Noise,” Conf. Rec. 2000 IEEE Ind. Appl. Conf., vol. 1, pp. 93–98 vol.1, 2000.

[D73] Khwaja Rahman, “Retrospective of Electric Machines for EV and HEV Traction Applications at General Motors”, IEEE Trans. On Magnetics, 2016

[D74] Unbalanced Magnetic Force Mitigation in 3-slot/2- pole Permanent Magnet Machine by Inserting Auxiliary Slots

[D75] Hoadong Yang, Electromagnetic Vibration of Interior Permanent Magnet Brushless Motors under Brushless DC and AC Operation

[D76] B. Iamamura, M. Rossi, M. Hecquet, V. Lanfranchi, S. Recorbet, and F. Tridon, “Vibration and acoustic noise of industrial inductors associated to converters in railway domain: design and material impacts,” ISEF 2015 – XVII Int. Symp. Electromagn. Fields Mechatronics, Electr. Electron. Eng., 2015.

[D77] E. Baba, R. Oka, Y. Suzuki, Y. Kawase, and M. Tatsuno, “Reactor Vibration Analysis in Consideration of Coupling between the Magnetic Field and Vibration,” Industry Applications Conference, 2004. 39th IAS Annual Meeting. Conference Record of the 2004 IEEE, 2004, pp. 872-877 vol.2.

[D78] Y. Gao, K. Muramatsu, M. Hatim, K. Fujiwara, Y. Ishihara, S. Fukuchi, and T. Takahata, “Design of a reactor driven by inverter power supply to reduce the noise considering electromagnetism and magnetostriction,” IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, vol. 46, no. 6, pp. 2179–2182, June 2010

[D79] G. Terorde, J. Schneider, and K. Hameyer, “Investigations of the audible

noise of inductors with respect to different ferromagnetic materials,” COMPEL: The International Journal for Computation and Mathematics in Electrical and Electronic Engineering, vol. 18, no. 4, pp. 647–655, 1999.

[D80] Yusuf Yasa, Acoustic Noise Mitigation for High Pole Count Switched Reluctance Machines through Skewing Method with Multiphysics FEA Simulations, ECCE 2017

[D81] Effect of Distributed Airgap in the Stator for Acoustic Noise Reduction in Switched Reluctance Motors

[D82] P. Pellerey, “Active Reduction of Electrical Machines Magnetic Noise by the Control of Low Frequency Current Harmonics.”

[D83] R. Islam, I. Husain, A. Fardoun and K. McLaughlin, “Permanent-Magnet Synchronous Motor Magnet Designs With Skewing for Torque Ripple and Cogging Torque Reduction,” in IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, vol. 45, no. 1, pp. 152-160, Jan.-feb. 2009.

[D84] X. Ge, Z. Q. Zhu, G. Kemp, D. Moule and C. Williams, “Optimal Step-Skew Methods for Cogging Torque Reduction Accounting for Three-Dimensional Effect of Interior Permanent Magnet Machines,” in IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion, vol. 32, no. 1, pp. 222-232, March 2017.

[D85] “Torque Ripple Reduction of IPMSM Applying Asymmetric Rotor Shape Under Certain Load Condition”

[D86] Rick, S., Putri, A. K., Franck, D., & Hameyer, K. (2016). Hybrid Acoustic Model of Electric Vehicles: Force Excitation in Permanent-Magnet Synchronous Machines. Ieee Transactions on Industry Applications, 52(4), 2979–2987.

[D87] Boesing, « Acoustic modeling of electrical drives – noise and vibration synthesis based on force response superposition”, RWTH University, Aachen, 2013

[D88] X. Han, D. Jiang, T. Zou, R. Qu and K. Yang, “Two-Segment Three-phase PMSM Drive with Carrier Phase-shift PWM for Torque Ripple and Vibration Reduction,” in IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, 2018.

[D89] T. SZKUDLAPSKI et al, “AC rotating machine radial vibrations: a principle to reduce the PWM switching effects”, 2015

[D90] J. Blum, J. Merwerth and H. G. Herzog, “Investigation of the segment order in step-skewed synchronous machines on noise and vibration,” 2014 4th International Electric Drives Production Conference (EDPC), Nuremberg, 2014, pp. 1-6.

[D91] Z. Azar, Z. Q. Zhu and G. Ombach, “Influence of Electric Loading and Magnetic Saturation on Cogging Torque, Back-EMF and Torque Ripple of PM Machines,” in IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, vol. 48, no. 10, pp. 2650-2658, Oct. 2012.

[D92] Kanematsu, M., Fujimoto, H., Hori, Y., Enomoto, T., Kondou, M., Komiya, H., … & Miyakawa, T. (2014, September). Experimental verification of 6th radial force control for IPMSMs based on flux linkage. In Energy Conversion Congress and Exposition (ECCE), 2014 IEEE (pp. 4821-4826). IEEE.

[D93] TChen, Yiguang  – Yang, Yukai  – Shen, Yonghuan  – Influence of Small Teeth on Vibration for Dual-Redundancy Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor  – Energies – 2018 

[D94] M. Reza et al, Cogging Reduction in Permanent Magnet Machines via Skewed Slot Opening and Its Analytical Modeling, Progress In Electromagnetics Research M, Vol. 70, 167–176, 2018

[D95] F. Chauvicourt, “Vibroacoustics of rotating electric machines – Prediction, validation and solution”, PhD thesis, 2018, KU Leuven

[D96] J. Hong, S. Wang, Y. Sun and H. Cao, “An Effective Method With Copper Ring for Vibration Reduction in Permanent Magnet Brush DC Motors,” in IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, vol. 54, no. 11, pp. 1-5, Nov. 2018, Art no. 8108105.

[D97] Liang W, “The investigation of electromagnetic radial  force and associated vibration in permanent magnet synchronous machines”, PhD Thesis, Cranfield University, 2017

[D98] Assembly of a generator stator core, EP 1 592 107 B1, Siemens Energy

[D99] STATOR CORE SUSPENSION AND RELATED SPRING BAR, US 2011/0121680 A1, General Electric, 2010

[D100] Assembly of a generator stator core, EP 1 592 107 B1, Siemens Energy

[D101] Effect of phase shift angle on radial force and vibration behavior in dual three-phase PMSM, IEEE Ind Elec, 2019


[D103] ELECTRIC MACHINE WITH REDUCED HOUSING RESONANCE, SS Kozarekar, C Tang, J Hetrick – US Patent App. 16/155,277, 2021

[D104] L. Liu, G. Götting and J. Xie, “Torque Ripple Reduction Using Variable DC-link Voltage Technique for Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor in Battery Electric Vehicle,” 2020 IEEE 29th International Symposium on Industrial Electronics (ISIE), 2020

[D105] Y. Yasa, Y. Sozer and M. Garip, “Acoustic Noise Mitigation of Switched Reluctance Machines with Leaf Springs,” in IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, doi: 10.1109/TIE.2023.3159969.

[D106] Chen, Xiao, and Jiabin Wang. “Magnetomotive force harmonic reduction techniques for fractional-slot non-overlapping winding configurations in permanent-magnet synchronous machines.” Chinese Journal of Electrical Engineering 3.2 (2017): 102-113.

[D107] Dajaku, Gurakuq, Wei Xie, and Dieter Gerling. “Reduction of low space harmonics for the fractional slot concentrated windings using a novel stator design.” IEEE Transactions on Magnetics 50.5 (2013): 1-12.

[D108] Lu, Yang, et al. “Comparative study on vibration behaviors of permanent magnet assisted synchronous reluctance machines with different rotor topologies.” IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications 57.2 (2021): 1420-1428.

[D109] Castagnaro, Emanuel, and Nicola Bianchi. “The Influence of Flux-Barriers Distribution on Vibrations in Synchronous Reluctance Machine.” 2019 IEEE Energy Conversion Congress and Exposition (ECCE). IEEE, 2019.

[D110] Lu, Yang, et al. “Comparative study on vibration behaviors of permanent magnet assisted synchronous reluctance machines with different rotor topologies.” IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications 57.2 (2021): 1420-1428.

[D111] Joksimovic, M. G., Levi, E., & Vukosavic, S. N. (2023). Near-complete suppression of harmonic currents in SPMSMs caused by back emf and dead time. IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, 70(5), 4472-4484.

[D112] J. Ma and Z. Q. Zhu, “Mitigation of Unbalanced Magnetic Force in a PM Machine With Asymmetric Winding by Inserting Auxiliary Slots,” in IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, vol. 54, no. 5, pp. 4133-4146, Sept.-Oct. 2018, doi: 10.1109/TIA.2018.2829879.

[D113] Dobroskok, Nikita A., and Olga V. Kurdyaeva. “Magnetic noise reduction in field oriented controlled induction machine.” 2015 IEEE NW Russia Young Researchers in Electrical and Electronic Engineering Conference (EIConRusNW). IEEE, 2015

[D114] Wang, Z.; Tian, W.; Zhao, W. Magnet Slotting Design to Reduce High Order Electromagnetic Force and Vibration of Permanent Magnet Motor. Energies 2022, 15, 8684.

[D115] W. Zhao, S. Zhu, J. Ji, G. Liu, and Y. Mao, “Analysis and reduction ofelectromagnetic vibration in fractional-slot concentrated-windings PM machines,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 69, no. 4, pp. 3357-3367, Apr. 2022

[D116] Y Miyama, M Ishizuka, H Kometani, et al. Vibration reduction by applying carrier phase-shift PWM on dual three-phase winding permanent magnet synchro-nous motor. IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., 2018, 54(6):5998-6004.

 [D117] W. Zhang, Y. Xu, H. Huang and J. Zou, “Vibration Reduction for Dual-Branch Three-Phase Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor With Carrier Phase-Shift Technique,” in IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, vol. 35, no. 1, pp. 607-618, Jan. 2020, doi: 10.1109/TPEL.2019.2910311.

[D118] Jang, G.U.; Cho, S.; Moon, J.; Jeon, K.; Kim, C.-w. Topology Optimization to Reduce Electromagnetic Force Induced Vibration for the Specific Frequency of PMSM Motor Using Electromagnetic-Structural Coupled Analysis. Energies 2021, 14, 431.

[D119] X. Yuan, I. Laird, and S. Walder, “Opportunities, challenges, and potential solutions in the application of fast-switching SiC power devices and converters,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 36, no. 4, pp. 3925-3945, Apr. 2021